In the colonial context, in which Europeans conquered, exploited and enslaved indigenous people and Africans, hierarchies always structured these interactions: "blood" and cultural traits of African or indigenous origin were considered by the mobile phone number list colonial power to be inferior to of the Europeans: blackness and Africanness were associated with slavery; the indigenous people had the status of vassals; both were associated with mobile phone number list barbarism and religious heterodoxy.
Mestizaje was also structured by gender hierarchies, both because the European colonizers were predominantly men who had relationships mobile phone number list with indigenous and African women, and for ideological reasons: the nationalist discourses of the 19th century –and also the 20th– they put the emphasis on male domination in the formation of the populations that ended up forming the nation-states. In a global context, although colonialism gave rise to sexual and cultural miscegenation everywhere, only in Latin America did this process come to characterize an mobile phone number list entire region in racial terms, and from the mid- nineteenth century it became widely –although not uniformly – adopted as an image of national self-identification by elites to differentiate the countries of the region from other areas of the world, especially the Atlantic world.
It is in relation to miscegenation that – even mobile phone number list today – we have to understand racism and the fight against it. mixing processes Although the figures are not very precise, it is estimated that, during the colonial period, less than two million Europeans probably arrived in present-day Latin America, of which 30% were women. Some 6.5 million enslaved Africans, the vast majority of whom were men, were forcibly transferred to the region. Once there, many of these Europeans and Africans mixed with each other or with the indigenous peoples.